Thursday, May 7, 2015

アカデミックな誤報と虚報

第二次大戦中に日本が20万人もの女性をさらったとする群れに追随する「学者達」のリスト。我々の調査では、それから米国政府の調査でも、また韓国を含め多くの国の歴史学者の調査でも、そんなことがあったとは証明されていない。

彼らはもう20万人も誘拐したとの主張から後退した。今年、我々はその嘘を打ち落とした。しかし、どうやら残骸とともにその嘘も生き残っているらしい。

あなたの名前がこのリストにあるのならば、取り下げることを申し出るのがベストだ。どうひいき目に見ても、これは誤報と虚報だからだ。

了解なしに名前が使われていたとしたら、米国における名誉毀損罪の申し立ての根拠となる可能性がある。(よくは知らないが、まぁ、良い弁護士を紹介してやってもいい)。

何人かの名前は聞いたことがある。アンチUSA、アンチ日本、中国大好きな連中だ。

この件は月を追うごとにひどくなっている。人々は傷つけられている。この酷いリストは、人々を一生にわたって苦しめるものになるかもしれない。

このリストはSamuels International Associatesによって、次のジャーナリスト達に送付された:

Daniel Aldrich, Professor of Political Science, Purdue University.
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2015年5月6日付けの The Nelson Report


翻訳:ソメイヨシノ
Donation:




Academic Wall of Shame
List of the so called Academics who have joined the herd that believes Japan kidnapped 200,000 women during World War II. Our research, and research of the government of the United States, and research from many historians from numerous countries such as Korea-- have disproven these claims.

They already are backing away from earlier claims of 200,000 kidnapped. We shot that lie out of the sky this year, but they still must live with the wreckage.

If your name is on this list, it is best that you request it be taken off. At best, this is a wall of academic failure.

If your name has been added without your explicit approval, you may have grounds for a defamation case in the United States. (I do not know, but can introduce you to some good lawyers).

I recognize some of the names, and those names belong to people who are anti-USA, anti-Japan, and pro-China expansion.

This issue is growing by the month. People are being damaged. This a terrible list to be on, and can potentially haunt people for life.

This list is being sent to journalists by Samuels International Associates:

Daniel Aldrich, Professor of Political Science, Purdue University.

Jeffrey Alexander, Associate Professor of History, University of Wisconsin-
Parkside.

Anne Allison, Professor of Cultural Anthropology, Duke University.

Marnie Anderson, Associate Professor of History, Smith College.

E. Taylor Atkins, Presidential Teaching Professor of History, Northern Illinois
University.

Paul D. Barclay, Associate Professor of History and Asian Studies Program
Chair, Lafayette College.

Jan Bardsley, Associate Professor of Asian Studies, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

James R. Bartholomew, Professor, Department of History, The Ohio State
University.

Brett de Bary, Professor, Asian Studies and Comparative Literature, Cornell
University.

Michael Baskett, Associate Professor and Chair, Department of Film and Media Studies, University of Kansas

Alan Baumler, Professor of History, Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

Alexander R. Bay, Associate Professor, History Department, Chapman
University.

Theodore C. Bestor, Professor of Social Anthropology, Harvard University.

Victoria Bestor, Director of the North American Coordinating Council on
Japanese Library Resources.

Davinder Bhowmik, Associate Professor of Asian Languages and Literature, University of Washington.

Herbert Bix, Professor Emeritus of History and Sociology, Binghamton
University.

Daniel Botsman, Professor of History, Yale University.

Michael Bourdaghs, Professor of Japanese Literature, East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Chicago.

Thomas Burkman, Research Professor of Asian Studies Emeritus, SUNY
Buffalo.

Susan L. Burns, Associate Professor of History, East Asian Languages and
Civilizations, University of Chicago.

Eric Cazdyn, Distinguished Professor of Aesthetics and Politics, Department of
East Asian Studies & Centre for Comparative Literature, University of Toronto.

Parks M. Coble, Professor of History, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.

Haruko Taya Cook, Instructor of Languages and Cultures, William Paterson University.

Theodore F. Cook, Professor of History, William Paterson University.

Bruce Cumings, Professor of History, University of Chicago.

Katarzyna Cwiertka, Professor of Modern Japanese Studies, Universiteit Leiden.

Charo D'Etcheverry, Associate Professor of Japanese Literature, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Eric Dinmore, Associate Professor of History, Hampden-Sydney College.

Lucia Dolce, Chair, Centre for the Study of Japanese Religions, University of
London, SOAS.

Ronald P. Dore, Honorary Fellow, London School of Economics.

John W. Dower, Professor Emeritus of History, Massachusetts Institute of
Technology.

Mark Driscoll, Professor of East Asian Studies, UNC, Chapel Hill.

Prasenjit Duara, Raffles Professor of Humanities, National University of
Singapore.

Alexis Dudden, Professor of History, University of Connecticut.

Martin Dusinberre, Professor of Global History, University of Zürich.

Peter Duus, Professor of History (Emeritus), Stanford University.

Steve Ericson, Associate Professor of History, Dartmouth College.

Elyssa Faison, Associate Professor, University of Oklahoma.

Norma Field, Professor Emerita of East Asian Studies, University of Chicago.

W. Miles Fletcher, Professor of History, University of North Carolina, Chapel
Hill.

Petrice R. Flowers, Associate Professor Political Science, University of Hawaii.

Joshua A. Fogel, Professor of History, York University, Toronto.

Sarah Frederick, Associate Professor of Japanese and Comparative Literature,
Boston University.

Dennis J. Frost, Wen Chao Chen Associate Professor of East Asian Studies, Kalamazoo College.

Sabine Fruhstuck, Professor of Modern Japanese Cultural Studies, University of
California, Santa Barbara.

James Fujii, Associate Professor, East Asian Languages and Literatures,
University of California, Irvine.

Takashi Fujitani, Professor of History, University of Toronto.

Sheldon M. Garon, Professor of History and East Asian Studies, Princeton
University.

Timothy S. George, Professor of History, University of Rhode Island.

Christopher Gerteis, Chair, Japan Research Centre, SOAS, University of London.

Carol Gluck, Professor of History, Columbia University.

Andrew Gordon, Professor of History, Harvard University.

Helen Hardacre, Professor of Religions and Society, Harvard University.

Harry Harootunian, Emeritus Professor of History, New York University;

Adjunct Professor of Japanese History, Columbia University.

Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Professor of History, University of California at Santa
Barbara.

Akiko Hashimoto, Associate Professor of Sociology, University of Pittsburgh.

Sally A. Hastings, Associate Professor of History, Purdue University.

Tom Havens, Professor of History, Northeastern University.

Kenji Hayao, Associate Professor, Political Science Department, Boston College.

Laura Hein, Professor of History, Northwestern University.

Robert Hellyer, Associate Professor of History, Wake Forest College.

Manfred Henningsen, Professor of Political Science, University of Hawaii at
Manoa.

Christopher L. Hill, Assistant Professor of Japanese Literature, University of
Michigan.

Katsuya Hirano, Associate Professor of History, UCLA.

David L. Howell, Professor of Japanese History, Harvard University.

Douglas Howland, Professor of History, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

James L. Huffman, H. Orth Hirt Professor of History Emeritus, Wittenberg University.

Janet Hunter, Saji Professor of Economic History, London School of Economics and Political Science.

Akira Iriye, Professor Emeritus, Harvard University.

Rebecca Jennison, Professor, Department of Humanities, Kyoto Seika University.

William Johnston, Professor of History, Wesleyan University.

John Junkerman, Documentary Filmmaker.

Ikumi Kaminishi, Associate Professor of Art and Art History, Tufts University.

Ken Kawashima, Associate Professor of East Asian Studies, University of
Toronto.

William W. Kelly, Professor of Anthropology, Yale University.

James Ketelaar, Professor of History, University of Chicago.

R. Keller Kimbrough, Associate Professor, University of Colorado at Boulder.

Miriam Kingsberg, Assistant Professor of History, University of Colorado.

Jeff Kingston, Director of Asian Studies and Professor of History, Temple
University Japan.

Victor Koschmann, Professor of History, Cornell University.

Emi Koyama, Independent Scholar, Japan-U.S. Feminist Network for
Decolonization (FeND).

Ellis S. Krauss, Professor Emeritus, University of California, San Diego.

Josef Kreiner, Professor Emeritus, Rheinische Freidrich-Wilhelms Universität Bonn.

Shigehisa Kuriyama, Reischauer Institute Professor of Cultural History, Harvard University.

Peter Kuznick, Professor of History and Director, Nuclear Studies Institute,
American University.

Thomas Lamarre, James McGill Professor, East Asian Studies , Art History and Communications Studies, McGill University

Andrew Levidis, Fellow, Reischauer Institute, Harvard University.

Ilse Lenz, Professor Emeritus of Sociology, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany.

Mark Lincicome, Associate Professor, Department of History, College of the
Holy Cross.

Sepp Linhart, Professor Emeritus of Japanese Studies and Sociology, University of Vienna.

Yukio Lippit, Professor of History of Art and Architecture, Harvard University.

Dr. Angus Lockyer, Lecturer in the History of Japan, Department of History, SOAS, University of London.

Susan Orpett Long, Professor of Anthropology, John Carroll University.

David B. Lurie, Associate Professor of Japanese History and Literature,
Columbia University.

Vera Mackie, Professor of Asian Studies, University of Wollongong.

Wolfram Manzenreiter, Professor of Japanese Studies, University of Vienna.

William Marotti, Associate Professor of History, UCLA.

Y. Tak Matsusaka, Professor of History, Wellesley College.

Trent Maxey, Associate Professor of Asian Languages and Civilizations and
History, Amherst College.

James L. McClain Professor of History, Brown University.

Gavan McCormack, Professor Emeritus of History, Australian National
University.

Melissa McCormick, Professor, Harvard University.

David McNeill, Journalist and Professor, Sophia University.

Mark Metzler, Professor of History, University of Texas at Austin.

Ian J. Miller, Professor of History, Harvard University.

Laura Miller, Ei'ichi Shibusawa-Seigo Arai Endowed Professor of Japanese
Studies, University of Missouri-St. Louis.

Janis Mimura, Associate Professor, State University of New York, Stony Brook.

Richard H. Minear, Professor of History (Emeritus), University of Massachusetts
Amherst.

Yuki Miyamoto, Associate Professor of Religious Studies, DePaul University.

Barbara Molony, Professor of History, Santa Clara University.

Yumi Moon, Associate Professor of History, Stanford.

Aaron Moore, Lecturer in East Asian History, The University of Manchester.

Tessa Morris-Suzuki, Professor of Japanese History, Australian National
University.

Aurelia George Mulgan, Professor of Japanese Politics, University of New South Wales.

R. Taggart Murphy, Professor, International Political Economy, University of Tsukuba, Tokyo Campus.

Tetsuo Najita, Professor Emeritus of History, University of Chicago.

Miri Nakamura, Associate Professor of Japanese Literature, College of East
Asian Studies, Wesleyan University.

John Nathan, Takashima Professor of Japanese Cultural Studies, University of
California, Santa Barbara.

Christopher Nelson, Associate Professor, Department of Anthropology,
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Satoko Oka Norimatsu, Editor, Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus.

Markus Nornes, Professor of Asian Cinema, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

David Tobaru Obermiller, Associate Professor, Department of History &
Japanese Studies Program, Gustavus Adolphus College.

Eiko Otake, Visiting artist, Wesleyan University.

Simon Partner, Professor of History, Duke University.

T.J. Pempel, Jack M. Forcey Professor of Political Science for Study of East
Asian Politics, University of California, Berkeley.

Matthew Penney, Associate Professor, Concordia University.

Samuel E. Perry, Associate Professor of East Asian Studies, Brown University.

Catherine Phipps, Associate Professor, University of Memphis

Leslie Pincus, Associate Professor of History, University of Michigan.

Morgan Pitelka, Associate Professor and Director of the Carolina Asia Center,

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Janet Poole, Associate Professor of East Asian Studies, University of Toronto.

Roger Pulvers, Author and Translator, Sydney, Australia.

Steve Rabson, Professor Emeritus of East Asian Studies, Brown University.

Fabio Rambelli, Chair, Department of East Asian Languages and Cultural
Studies and Professor of Japanese Religions and Cultural History, University of California, Santa Barbara.

Mark Ravina, Professor of History, Emory University.

Steffi Richter, Professor of East Asian Studies, Universität Leipzig.

Luke Roberts, Professor of History, University of California Santa Barbara.

Jennifer Robertson, Professor of Anthropology and History of Art, University of Michigan.

Jay Rubin, Professor Emeritus, Harvard University.

Ken Ruoff, Professor of History and Director of the Center for Japanese Studies,
Portland State University.

Jordan Sand, Professor of History, Georgetown University.

Wesley Sasaki-Uemura, Associate Professor of Japanese History, University of Utah.

Ellen Schattschneider, Associate Professor of Anthropology and Women's, Gender and Sexuality Studies, Brandeis University.

Andre Schmid, Associate Professor of East Asian Studies, University of Toronto.

Amanda C. Seaman, Associate Professor of Japanese and Director of
Comparative Literature, University of Massachusetts Amherst.

Ethan Segal, Associate Professor of History, Michigan State University.

Wolfgang Seifert, Professor Emeritus of Japanese Studies, University of
Heidelberg.

Mark Selden, Senior Research Associate, Cornell University; Editor, Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus.

Franziska Seraphim, Associate Professor of History, Boston College.

Sayuri Guthrie Shimizu, Professor of History, Rice University.

Eiko Maruko Siniawer, Associate Professor of History, Williams College.

Patricia Sippel, Professor, Toyo Eiwa University.

Richard Smethurst, Professor Emeritus of History, University of Pittsburgh.

Kerry Smith, Associate Professor of History, Brown University.

Daniel Sneider, Associate Director for Research, Shorenstein Asia-Pacific
Research Center, Stanford University.

M. William Steele, Professor of History, International Christian University.

Brigitte Steger, Senior Lecturer in Modern Japanese Studies, University of
Cambridge.

Stefan Tanaka, Professor of Communication, University of California, San
Diego.

Alan Tansman, Professor of Japanese Literature, University of California
Berkeley.

Sarah Thal, Associate Professor of History, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Michael F. Thies, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, UCLA

Mark Tilton, Associate Professor of Political Science, Purdue University.

Julia Adeney Thomas, Associate Professor of History, University of Notre Dame.

John Whittier Treat, Emeritus Professor, Yale University; Professor, Ewha
Womans University.

Hitomi Tonomura, Professor of History, University of Michigan

Jun Uchida, Associate Professor of History, Stanford University.

J. Keith Vincent, Associate Professor of Japanese and Comparative Literature,
Boston University.

Stephen Vlastos, Professor of History, University of Iowa.

Ezra F. Vogel, Professor Emeritus, Harvard University.

Klaus Vollmer, Professor of Japanese Studies, LMU Munich University.

Anne Walthall, Professor Emerita of History, University of California, Irvine.

Max Ward, Assistant Professor of History, Middlebury College.

Lori Watt, Associate Professor of History, Washington University in St. Louis.

Gennifer Weisenfeld, Professor, Duke University.

Michael Wert, Associate Professor, Marquette University.

Kären Wigen, Professor of History, Stanford University.

Tomomi Yamaguchi, Associate Professor of Anthropology, Montana State University.

Samuel H. Yamashita, Henry E. Sheffield Professor of History, Pomona College.

Daqing Yang, Associate Professor, George Washington University.

Christine Yano, Professor of Anthropology, University of Hawaii at Manoa.

Marcia Yonemoto, Associate Professor of History, University of Colorado
Boulder.

Lisa Yoneyama, Professor of East Asian Studies, University of Toronto.

Theodore Jun Yoo, Associate Professor of History, University of Hawaii.

Takashi Yoshida, Professor, Western Michigan University.

Louise Young, Professor of History, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Eve Zimmerman, Barbara Morris Caspersen Associate Professor of Humanities & Associate Professor of Japanese, Wellesley University.

Reinhard Zöllner, Professor of Japanese and Korean Studies, University of Bonn.





17 comments:

Anonymous said...

Who is lying?
I want to know the truth

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7jlfAqR8uBc&feature=iv&src_vid=KZ2d1bqycmw&annotation_id=annotation_432572

Anonymous said...

(transfer part of the post to another topic)
> Which historian do they support?
>
> “Open Letter in Support of Historians in Japan”
> 『日本の歴史家を支持する声明』
> in Engilish
> in Japanese
>
> At least they admit that this issue has been distorted by Korea and China, but they swap the problems in "this issue". This statement doesn't mention a matter of McGraw-Hill directly, but you see some names of "19 (20) Historians" including Prof Dudden in signing.

There are also relevant person names of "Japan Focus", "FeND".
This statement should be sent to President Park Geun-hye, after it is modified somewhat for the US military comfort women (and Lai Dai Han). I hope that 19 Japanese historians and scholars, including Prof Hata announce the above or the corrected version.

# Distortion of Yonhap News and Prof Dudden who flatters South Korea.
日米歴史家、韓国メディアの"変化球"に困惑 なぜ「5月5日の日米声明」をネジ曲げるのか - 東洋経済オンライン
Japan-US historians puzzled to "breaking ball" of South Korea media. Why twist the "Japan-US statement of May 5" - Toyo Keizai online
http://toyokeizai.net/articles/-/68890

Anonymous said...

ニュースの嘘と一次資料(二カ国語)
http://ameblo.jp/workingkent/entry-12024163180.html

One thing that surprised me about this latest report is that the usually anti-Japanese Toyo Keizai Online uncharacteristically published a balanced report. (No English available.)

 日米歴史家、韓国メディアの"変化球"に困惑
 なぜ「5月5日の日米声明」をネジ曲げるのか
 http://toyokeizai.net/articles/-/68890

natsumi said...

学者たちは、日本にまだ遠慮しています。
最低20万人であり、実際はこの10倍の200万人可能性の方が高いのが現状です。

学者たちも本当はアジア各地の村の男を皆殺しにして女性を全て連れて行った日本軍を歴史に書き留めたいはずです。しかしながら、連行された女性も全て殺され証拠がないのです。だから歴史に残せない。証拠がないから事実ではないという論法には飽き飽きしています。犯人が証拠隠滅していれば当然証拠はありません。そして、犯人(日本)は罪を免れようとしています。
証拠がない=事実ではない ということではないことを認識すべきです。
証拠がなくても事実は事実なのです。

Anonymous said...

natsumi さん
プロパガンダはリアリティがないと逆効果ですよ。


1961年に朴正煕がクーデターを起こした直後に幹部に抜擢した腹心中の腹心だ。蔡命新は1994年に執筆した自叙伝『死線幾たび』の中で、朝鮮戦争当時、韓国軍が慰安所を運営していた事実を認めている。朝鮮戦争休戦後、僅か10年余りでベトナム戦争に参戦した韓国軍が、ベトナム戦争でも慰安所を運営するのはごく自然な成り行きだっただろう。

http://mmtdayon.blog.fc2.com/blog-entry-378.html

AZ said...

>natsumi
神を欺く者はその報いを受けますよ。

natsumi said...

歴史は証拠ではなく、真実によって語られるべきです。

完全な証拠がないと真実ではない。
完全な証拠がないと神を欺く行為。
完全な証拠がないとプロパガンダ

これはもうやめませんか?

殺人犯が人を殺したのを多数の人が目撃し証言もあるのに、殺したときの武器が見つからないだけで、殺人犯を無罪にするようなものです。

あきらかに、日本軍は多くの性奴隷女性を虐殺しており、さらに多くの市民を虫けらのように虐殺しています。
これは完全な証拠が無くても事実なのです。

Anonymous said...

natsumi さん

あなたのように説得力皆無な主張してくれる人材が
存在してくれるのは逆宣伝になって素晴らしいことです。

日本国内の左翼勢力は社会から見捨てられてきています。
それは攻撃されたからではなく、自滅しているからです。

GHQの洗脳状態のままに盲信するその姿はカルト宗教に
洗脳された信者と酷似しています。

歴史に向い合っていないのは韓国ですよ
 補導連盟事件では112万人が意味もなく虐殺された。
 韓国軍は朝鮮戦争とベトナム戦争で慰安婦施設を運営していた。
 その時点で慰安婦施設の運営が当然の行為だと判断していた。
 ベトナム戦争時、韓国軍は多くの性奴隷女性を虐殺しており、
 さらに多くの市民を虫けらのように虐殺しています。

Anonymous said...

natsumiさんへ

朝鮮半島の人口と寿命は、日本併合時代どうだったのか調べられます。人口が増えて、寿命が長くなってます。20万人女性が殺害されたなら、人口に影響がありますが、実際は増えてますし、寿命も延びてます。

証拠がなくても、加害者にできる社会とは、共産主義や軍国主義の朝鮮半島や中国です。

日本はそうなってはいけません。

Anonymous said...

すげーな。あくまで証拠はいらないって言い張るのか。理解できん。

じゃあこれからは、natsumiさんは、連続殺人鬼で、テロリストで、大量市民虐殺の実行犯ってことにしよう。

証拠はないけど、証拠がないからって真実じゃないってことにはならないよね。
natsumiさんは重罪人だね。

Anonymous said...

>natsumiさん、

この人、アチコチで同じような妄想をふりまいてコメント欄を引っ掻き回してます。みなさんマトモに相手にするのやめませんか。何か意図あってやってるは明白です。スルーしましょう。

taro yamada said...

Historians who advocate the sexual-slavery or massacre by the imperial Japanese army should read the books "taking a glance" series (aka ひと目でわかる )written by Mr.Mizuma Masanori(水間政憲さん)

Mr.Mizuma Masanori proved ,
using the from 1930s to 1940s photo-magazines books that there were no such a thing.

in the China ,the imperial Japanese army did the peace-keeping activity.

In the korea, there were so much kidnapping of women by the korean Gangsters so that the Japanese police arrested the the korean Gangsters

Anonymous said...

Dear Mr. Yon
I want to read you this item.
http://www.focus-asia.com/outline/416851/

The South Korean Government said: Comfort women there were at 238.

ken said...

> Anonymous さん
>>スルーしましょう。

いいえ、嘘が書かれた時はそれを指摘するべきです。
感情論ではなく理論で嘘を暴いていくべきです。いくらそれが馬鹿バカしくてもです。
「そんな馬鹿なことあるか」とスルーした結果が今の慰安婦問題です。
日本人対象の掲示板ならスルーもいいですが、ここは多くの外国の方も訪問されています。
日本人ならすぐに嘘とわかる事も、気づかずに信じてしまわれます。

Anonymous said...

日本兵より多い(笑)。200人なら少しは信憑性ありますよ。
- 朝鮮の人口(1944年): 2512万人。女性は半分として1266万人 → 女性6人に1人が拉致された?
- 韓国人は10代の女性が拉致されたと主張 → 人口分布は確認出来てませんが全女性の5分の1位で253万人、つまりほぼ全員。

参考:
1950年のデータでは、10歳幅をとって全人口のほぼ10分1→全女性のほぼ5分の1
人口ピラミッド・女性(1950年)
韓国  10-14: 6.0%、15-19: 5.0%、20-24: 4.3%、25-29: 3.8%
北朝鮮 10-14: 7.3%、15-19: 6.1%、20-24: 5.0%、25-29: 4.0%

人口ピラミッドについての指摘
【慰安婦】フランスの方が暴いた韓国の嘘~La pyramide des âges de la Corée du Sud non impactée par la guerre
https://youtu.be/uAA8NjhOoAw

Pointed out on the population pyramid
Truth of comfort women by the change of Korean population from France
https://youtu.be/9cr9m-TnRL8

Seinan Harada said...

I cannot see two important names are missing on the list.

Sarah Soh , Seung Sook Moon

Anonymous said...

> This statement should be sent to President Park Geun-hye, after it is modified somewhat for the US military comfort women (and Lai Dai Han).

And additionally,
the intervention to speech of the Korean government have much bigger problems than Japan although it is clear that this statement support the "19 (20) Historians" who criticize protest of the Japanese Government. Actually even Prof. Jordan Sand who has led this statement has also commented on the website which has been published it.

> I personally would like to see an analogous initiative among Korean historians. Although I cannot claim expertise on the Korean situation, reports of the treatment of Professor Park Yu-ha in Korea are disturbing.

Open Letter in Support of Historians in Japan | H-Asia | H-Net
https://networks.h-net.org/node/22055/discussions/69206/open-letter-support-historians-japan#reply-69221